Weaving has been a part of human daily life since the beginning of time. Woven fabric has been dated as far as back 5000 B.C. Weaving is one of the oldest forms of arts and crafts, but it did not begun as a hobby. Early civilization needed it to provide clothing and shelter in order to survive. In early civilization people were nomads. They needed homes that they knew would be temporary, but were still secure. They used resources they found in nature to weave what supplies they could. They also wove walls, doors, rugs, hammocks.
First weaving machine was invented by the Kay in 1733 named as fly shuttle. In 1745 jacquard loom was developed to control each warp and weft yarn. In 1803 first sizing m/c was invented and in 1830 there were 100,000 power looms operating in England. Modern textile industry began to emerge after 2nd world war. Projectile loom was invented in 1953 and in 1972 and 1975 rapier and air jet weaving m/c were invented respectively. Filling insertion rate has increased from few m/min to 2000m/min.
Weaving is a method in which fabric is formed by two distinct sets of yarns which are interlaced at right angle (90o). The longitudinal yarns are called Warp and the horizontal yarns are weft. Word Weft or woof is an old English word meaning “that which is woven”
The machine which is used to make fabric is called loom and the interlacing way of warp and weft yarns is called weave. Basic weaves are
- Plain weave
- Satin weave
- Twill weave
Motions on loom are classified as:
- Primary motion
- Shedding 2 .picking 3. Beat up
- Secondary motion
- Let off2. pick up
- Tertiary motion
- Warp stop Weft stop